Directions： The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some questions， more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However， you are to choose the best answer， that is， the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are by commonsense standards implausible， superfluous， or incompatible with the Passage After you have chosen the best answer， blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet
1. With the passage of the new tax reform law， the annual tax burden on low-income taxpayers will be reduced， on average， by anywhere from $100 to $300. Clearly， tax reform is in the interest of low-income taxpayers.
Which one of the following， if true， most undermines the conclusion above？
（A） Tax reform， by simplifying the tax code will save many people the expense of having an accountant do their taxes.
（B） Tax reform， by eliminating tax incentives to build rental housing， will push up rents an average of about $40 per month for low-income taxpayers.
（C） Low-income taxpayers have consistently voted for those political candidates who are strong advocates of tax reform.
（D） The new tax reform laws will permit low and middle-income taxpayers to deduct Child-care expenses from their taxes.
（E） Under the new tax reform laws， many low-income taxpayers who now pay taxes will no Longer be required to do so.
2. If we are to expand the exploration of our solar system. Our next manned flight should be to Phobos one of Mars‘s moons， rather than to Mars itself. The flight times to each are the same， But the Phobos expedition would require less than half the fuel load of a Mars expedition and would， therefore， be much less costly. So， it is clear that Phobos should be our next step in Space exploration.
Which one of the following， if true， would most help to explain the difference in fuel requirement？
（A） More equipment would be required to explore Phobos than to explore Mars.
（B） Smaller spaceships require less fuel than larger spaceships.
（C） Information learned during the trip to Phobos can be used during a subsequent trip to Mars.
（D） The shortest distance between Phobos and Mars is less than half the shortest distance Between Earth and Mars.
（E） Lift-off for the return trip from Phobos requires much less fuel than that from Mars because of Phobos weaker gravitational pull.
3. Scientific research that involves international collaboration has produced papers of greater influence. As measured by the number of times a paper is cited in subsequent papers， than has research without any collaboration. Papers that result from international collaboration are cited an average of seven times， whereas papers with single authors are cited only three times on average This difference shows that research projects conducted by international research teams are of greater importance than those conducted by single researchers.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends？
（A） Prolific writers can inflate the number of citations they receive by citing themselves in Subsequent papers.
（B） It is possible to ascertain whether or not a paper is the product of international Collaboration by determining the number of citations it has received
（C） The number of citations a paper receives is a measure of the importance of the Research it reports.
（D） The collaborative efforts of scientists who are citizens of the same country do not produce papers that are as important as papers that are produced by international Collaboration.
（E） International research teams tend to be more generously funded than are single
4. It is more desirable to have some form of socialized medicine than s system of medical care relying on the private sector. Socialized medicine is more broadly accessible than is private-sector system. In addition， since countries with socialized medicine have a lower infant morality rate than do countries with a system relying entirely on the private sector， socialized medicine seems to be technologically superior.
Which one of the following best indicates a flaw in the argument about the technological superiority of socialized medicine？
（A） The lower infant mortality rate might be due to the systems allowing greater access to
（B） There is no necessary connection between the economic system of socialism and Technological achievement.
（C） Infant mortality is a reliable indicator of the quality of medical care for children.
（D） No list is presented of the countries whose infant mortality statistics are summarized under the two categories， “socialized” and “private-sector”。
（E） The argument presupposes the desirability of socialized medicine， which is what the
Argument seeks to-establish.
5. Most parents who are generous are good parents， but some self-centered parents are also good parents. Yet all good parents share one characteristic； they are good listeners.
If all of the statements in the passage are true， which one of the following must also be true？
（A） All parents who are good listeners are good parents.
（B） Some parents who are good listeners are not good parent.
（C） Most parents who are good listeners are generous.
（D） Some parents who are good listeners are self-centered
（E） Fewer self-centered parents than generous parents are good listeners.
6. Lourdes： Dietary fiber is an important part of a healthful diet. Experts recommend that adults consume 20 to 35 grams of fiber a day.
Kyra： But a daily intake of fiber that is significantly above that recommended level interferes with mineral absorption， especially the absorption of calcium. The public should be told to cut act on fiber intake
Which one of the following， if true， most undermines Kyra’s recommendation？
（A） Among adults， the average consumption of dietary fiber is at present approximately 10 grams a day.
（B） The more a food is processed， the more the fiber is broken down and the lower the Fiber content.
（C） Many foodstuffs that are excellent sources of fiber are economical and readily available
（D） Adequate calcium intake helps prevent the decrease in bone mass known as osteoporosis.
（E） Many foodstuffs that are excellent sources of fiber are popular with consumers.
7. A certain retailer promotes merchandise by using the following policy： At all times there is either a “manger‘s sale” or a “holiday sale” or both going on. All sales are run for exactly one calendar month. In any given month， if a manager wishes to clear out particular Line of merchandise， then a managers’ sale is declared， If a holiday falls within the calendar month And there is excess merchandise in the warehouse never contains excess merchandise
Which one of the following can be concluded from the passage？
（A） If a holiday falls within a given month and there is no extra merchandise in the warehouse that month， then a holiday sale is declared
（B） If a holiday sale is not being run， then it is the month of August.
（C） If a manger‘s sale is being run in some month， and then there is no excess merchandise in the warehouse in that month.
（D） If there is not a manger’s sale being run some month. Then there is holiday sale being run in that month.
（E） If there is no excess merchandise in the warehouse， then it is the month of August.
8. Prominent business executives often play active roles in United States presidential campaigns as fundraisers or backroom strategists. But few actually seek to become president themselves. Throughout history the great majority of those who have sought to become president have been Lawyers， military leaders， or full-time politicians. This is understandable， for the personality and skills that make for success in business do not make for success in politics. Business is largely hierarchical， whereas politics is coordinative； As a result， business executives tend to be Uncomfortable with compromises and power sharing， which are inherent in polities.
Which one of the following， if true， most seriously weakens the proposed explanation of why Business executives do not run for president？
（A） Many of the most active presidential fundraisers and backroom strategists are themselves Politicians.
（B） Military leaders are generally no more comfortable with compromises and power sharing than are business executives.
（C） Some of the skills needed to become a successful lawyer are different from some of those needed to become a successful military leader.
（D） Some former presidents have engaged in business ventures after leaving office
（E） Some hierarchically structured companies have been major financial supporters of Candidates for president.
9. A scientific theory is a good theory if it satisfies two requirements， It must accurately describe a large class of observations in terms of a model that is simple enough to contain only a few elements， and it must make definite predictions about the results of future observations， For example， Aristotle‘s cosmological theory， which claimed that everything was made out of four elements——earth， air， fire， and water——satisfied the first requirement， but it did not make any definite， Thus， Aristotle’s cosmological theory was not a good theory.
If all the statements in the passage are true， each of the following must also be true EXCEPT：
（A） Prediction about the results of future observations must be made by any good scientific theory.
（B） Observation of physical phenomena was not a major concern in Aristotle‘s cosmological Theory
（C） Four elements can be the basis of a scientific model that is simple enough to meet the Simplicity criterion of a good theory.
（D） A scientific model that contains many elements is not a good theory
（E） Aristotle’s cosmological theory described a large class of observations in terms of only four elements.
10. Millions of irreplaceable exhibits in natural history museums are currently allowed to decay. Yet without analyses of eggs from museums， the studies linking pesticides with the decline of Birds of prey would have been impossible Therefore， funds must be raised to preserve at least Those exhibits that will be most valuable to science in the future
The argument presupposes that：
（A） If a museum exhibit is irreplaceable， its preservation is of an importance that overrides economic considerations.
（B） The scientific analysis of museum exhibits can be performed in nondestructive way
（C） Eggs of extinct species should be analyzed to increase knowledge of genetic relationships among species
（D） It can be known at this time what data will be of most use to scientific investigators in the future
（E） The decay of organic material in natural history exhibits is natural and cannot be prevented
11. Compared to nonprofit hospitals of the same size， investor-owned hospitals require less public investment in the form of tax breaks， use fewer employees， and have higher occupancy levels. It can therefore be concluded that investor-owned hospitals are a better way of delivering medical care than are nonprofit hospitals.
Which one of the following， if true， most undermines the conclusion drawn above？
（A） Nonprofit hospitals charge more per bed than do investor-owned hospitals.
（B） Patients in nonprofit hospitals recover more quickly than don patients with comparable Illnesses in investor-owned hospitals
（C） Nonprofit hospitals do more fundraising than do investor-owned hospitals.
（D） Doctors at nonprofit hospitals earn higher salaries than do similarly qualified doctors at investor-owned hospitals.
（E） Nonprofit hospitals receive more donations than do investor-owned hospitals.
12. The ancient Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten， who had a profound effect during his lifetime on Egyptian art and religion， was well loved and highly respected by his subjects. We know this from the fierce loyalty show to him by his palace guards， as documented in reports written during Akhenaten‘s reign.
A questionable technique used in the argument is to：
（A） Introduce information that actually contradicts the conclusion
（B） Rely on evidence that in principle would be impossible to challenge
（C） Make a generalization based on a sample that is likely to be unrepresentative
（D） Depend on the ambiguity of the term “ancient”
（E） Apply present-day standards in an inappropriate way to ancient times