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实用备考资料:LSAT阅读理解真题28(含答案)

2011-11-25 19:06

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  In order to explain the socioeconomic achievement, in the face of (in the face of: adv.面对) disadvantages due to racial discrimination, of Chinese and Japanese immigration to the United States and their descendants, sociologists have typically applied either culturally based or structurally based theories—but never both together. To use an economic metaphor, culturally based explanations assert the importance of the supply side of the labor market, emphasizing the qualities immigrant groups bring with them for competition in the United States labor market. Such explanations reflect a human-capital perspective in which status attainment is seen as a result of individuals’ ability to generate resources. Structurally based explanations, on the other hand, examine the market condition of the immigrants’ host society, particularly its discriminatory practices and their impact on the status attainment process of immigrant groups. In the economic metaphor, structural explanations assert the importance of the demand side of the labor market.

  In order to understand the socioeconomic mobility of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants, only an analysis of supply-side and demand-side factors together, in the context of historical events, will suffice. On the cultural or supply side, differences in immigration pattern and family formation resulted in different rates of socioeconomic achievement for Chinese and Japanese immigrants. For various reasons, Chinese immigrants remained sojourners and did not (except for urban merchants) establish families. They were also hampered by ethnic conflict in the labor market. Japanese immigrants, on the other hand, were less constrained, made the transition from sojourner to settler within the first two decades of immigration, and left low-wage labor to establish small businesses based on a household mode of production. Chinese sojourners without families were more vulnerable to demoralization, whereas Japanese immigrants faced societal hostility with the emotional resources provide by a stable family life. Once Chinese immigrants began to establish nuclear families and produce a second generation, instituting household production similar to that established by Japanese immigrants, their socioeconomic attainment soon paralleled that of Japanese immigrants and their descendants.

  On the structural or demand side, changes in institutional constraints, immigration laws, labor markets, and societal hostility were rooted in the dynamics of capitalist economic development. Early capitalist development generated a demand for low-wage labor that could not be fulfilled. Early Chinese and Japanese emigration was a response to this demand. In an advanced capitalist economy, the demand for immigrant labor is more differentiated: skilled professional and technical labor fills empty positions in the primary labor market and, with the traditional unskilled low-wage labor, creates two immigrant streams. The high levels of education attained by the descendants of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their concentration in strategic states such as California paved the way for the movement of the second generation into the expanding primary labor market in the advanced capitalist economy that existed after the Second World War.

  8. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

  (A) The socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants is best explained by a historical examination of the economic structures prevalent in the United States when such immigrant groups arrived.

  (B) The socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants is best explained by an examination of their cultural backgrounds, in particular their level of educational attainment.

  (C) The socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants has taken place in the context of a culturally based emphasis on the economic welfare of the nuclear family.

  (D) Only the market structure of the capitalist economy of the United States in which supply has historically been regulated by demand can account for the socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants.

  (E) Only an analysis that combines an examination of the culture of Chinese and Japanese immigrant groups and the socioeconomic structure of the host country can adequately explain the socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants.

  9. Which one of the following can best be described as a supply-side element in the labor market, as such elements are explained in the passage?

  (A) concentration of small businesses in a given geographical area

  (B) need for workers with varying degrees of skill

  (C) high value placed by immigrants on work

  (D) expansion of the primary labor market

  (E) development of an advanced capitalist economy

  10. Which one of the following best states the function of the author’s mention of “two immigration streams” (line 62)?

  (A) It demonstrates the effects of changes in human capital.

  (B) It illustrates the operation of the primary labor market.

  (C) It explains the nature of early Chinese and Japanese immigration.

  (D) It characterizes the result of changing demand-side factors.

  (E) It underscores an influence on the labor market.

  11. It can be inferred that the author’s analysis of the socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants differs from that of most sociologists primarily in that most sociologists

  (A) address the effects of the interaction of causal factors

  (B) exclude the factor of a developing capitalist economy

  (C) do not apply an economic metaphor

  (D) emphasize the disadvantageous effects of racial discrimination

  (E) focus on a single type of theoretical explanation

  12. It can be inferred that which one of the following was an element of the experience of both Chinese and Japanese immigrants in the United States?

  (A) initial status as sojourners

  (B) slow accumulation of capital

  (C) quick transition from laborer to manager

  (D) rapid establishment of nuclear families

  (E) rapid acquisition of technical skills

  13. The author is primarily concerned with

  (A) advancing a synthesis of approaches to an issue

  (B) challenging a tentative answer to a question

  (C) evaluating the soundness of theories

  (D) resolving the differences between schools of thought

  (E) outlining the achievements of a group

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